Fonction(s) actuelle(s)

President, World Bank Administrative Tribunal

Domaine(s) d’expertise

  • Public international law
  • International organizations
  • Treaties
  • Law of the Sea
  • International investment law


  • Served in the legal office of the United Nations for 32 years; last position held, Director of Codification Division, Office of Legal Affairs United Nations; Secretary of the International Law Commission and Secretary of the Committee of the Whole, Rome Conference on the Establishment of the International Criminal Court.
  • Member, Expert Group Established by the 2008 Ad Hoc Energy Ministers Meetings Held in Jeddah and London (Enhancing the Framework of Dialogue Among Oil and Gas Producer and Consumer Countries- International Energy Forum 2008-2009).
  • Consultant, International Energy Forum, Charter of the International Energy Forum 2010.
  • Member, Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry 2011.
  • Member, Board of Editors, American Journal of International Law; Editorial Board, International Criminal Law Series; Member, International Advisory Board of the School of Law of City University of Hong Kong, 2007-2015; Member, Board of Editors, Studies in Intercultural Human Rights.
  • Judge, World Bank Administrative Tribunal (2013- ).
  • Expert, Institute for Integrated Transitions.
  • Consultant, international law, international investment law.
  • LLB. From National University of Tehran, LLM and JSD from Yale Law School.
  • Member, New York and Connecticut Bars.

Publications sélectionnées


  • International Regulation of Internal ResourcesA Study of Law and Policy (University of Virginia Press, 1981).
  • International Law in Contemporary Perspective (2004, Foundation Press, Co-authored with W. Michael Reisman, Siegfried Wiessner & Gayle Westerman).
  • Looking to the Future: Essays on International Law in Honor of W. Michael Reisman (2010, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Co-Edited with Jacob Katz Cogan, Robert D. Sloane & Siegfried Wiessner).



  • « Claims Against International Organizations: Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes », 7 Yale Journal of World Public Order 131-176 (1981).
  • « Codification of the Law of State Responsibility », Proceedings of the American Society of International Law (1989).
  • “Quest for an International Liability Regime for the Protection of the Global Commons”, (with W. Michael Reisman) in International Law: Theory and Practice, (K. Wellens ed.) 1998, PP.469-492.
  • “The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court”, 92 American Journal of International Law, 22-43 (1999).
  • “The Utility and Limits of Illusion in International Politics” in Looking to the Future: Essays on International Law in Honor of W. Michael Reisman (2010- Mahnoush H. Arsanjani, Jacob Katz Cogan, Robert D. Sloane & Siegfried Wiessner eds.).
  • “Interpreting Treaties for the Benefit of Third Parties: The “Salvors’ Doctrine” and the Use of Legislative History in Investment Treaties,” (with W. Michael Reisman), 104:4 American Journal of International Law, p. 597 (2010).
  • “Provisional Application of Treaties in International Law: The Energy Charter Treaty Awards”, (with W. Michael Reisman), in The Law of Treaties Beyond the Vienna Convention (E. Cannizzaro, ed.) p. 86 (2011).
  • “The United Nations and International Law-Making”, Inaugural Lecture, The Hague Academy, (July 2012), Recueil des Cours, vol. 162, 2014, pages 12-39.
  • “Applicable Law under the ICSID Convention: The Tortured History of the Interpretation of ICSID Article 42… (with W. Michael Reisman), in Building International Investment Law: The First 50 Years of ICSID (M. Kinnear, et al, (ICSID, Kluwer Law International, pp. 3-11 (2016).
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