Année d'élection

Fonction(s) actuelle(s)

  • Professor in Private Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam
  • Professor in Private International Law, Utrecht University

Domaine(s) d’expertise

  • Private international law
  • International complex litigation
  • Civil justice


Xandra Kramer is Professor of Private Law (focus on European and international civil justice) at Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam; Professor of Private International Law at Utrecht University (the Netherlands); and Deputy Judge in the District Court of Rotterdam. She is an elected member of the Dutch Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). Her research interests are private international law and civil justice and her mission is to contribute to improving access to justice in the international context. She is particularly interested in the functioning of civil justice systems and the impact on society, the crossroads between procedural justice and economic efficiency, transnational complex litigation and enforcement; and the harmonization of private international law and civil procedure. She was awarded an ERC consolidator grant for the project ‘Building EU civil justice: challenges of procedural innovations – bridging access to justice’ ( She also obtained a Vici grant from the Dutch Research Council for the project ‘Affordable access to justice: towards sustainable cost and funding mechanisms for civil litigation in Europe’. She has been in charge of and involved in multiple studies for the European Commission, the European Parliament, and the Dutch Ministry of Justice and Security. She was co-reporter and reporter of key working groups of the project that resulted in the adoption of the ELI-Unidroit Model European Rules of Civil Procedure in 2020.

Publications sélectionnées

• X.E. Kramer, A. Biard, J. Hoevenaars & E. Themeli (Eds), New Pathways to Civil Justice in Europe, Springer 2021
• I.N. Tzankova & X.E. Kramer, From Injunction and Settlement to Action: Collective Redress and Funding in the Netherlands, in: A. Uzelac and S. Voet, Class Actions in Europe: Holy Grail or a Wrong Trail?, Springer 2021, p. 97-130
• X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (Eds.), International Business Courts – A European and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing 2019
• X.E. Kramer, A Common Discourse in European Private International Law? A View from the Court System, in Jan von Hein, Eva-Maria Kieninger and Giesela Rühl (eds.), How European is European Private International Law, Intersentia 2019, p. 211-230
• X.E. Kramer, Judicial Cooperation in Civil Matters, in: P.J. Kuijper, F. Amtenbrink, D. Curtin, B. De Witte, A. McDonnell & S. Van den Bogaert (Eds.), The Law of the European Union, Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International 2018, p. 721-740
• X.E. Kramer & S. Kakiuchi, Austerity in Civil Procedure and the Role of Simplified Procedures, Erasmus Law Review 8 2015(4), p. 139-147
• A.O. Makinwa & X.E. Kramer, Contracts Tainted by Corruption: Does Dutch Civil Law Augment the Criminalization of Corruption?, in M.J. Bonnel & Olaf Meyer, The Impact of Corruption on International Commercial Contracts, Heidelberg: Springer 2015, p. 205-228.
• X.E. Kramer, Securities Collective Action and Private International Law Issues in Dutch WCAM Settlements: Global Aspirations and Regional Boundaries, Pacific McGeorge Global Business & Development Journal 2014, p. 236-279
• X.E. Kramer, Cross-Border Enforcement and the Brussels I-bis Regulation: Towards a New Balance between Mutual Trust and National Control over Fundamental Rights, Netherlands International Law Review 2013, p. 349-379

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